Linux基础:如何找出你的系统所支持的最大内存

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大多数情况下你可以从BIOS、产品目录或者干脆手动找出你的系统所持的最大内存。这里,我们介绍一种简单有用的技巧——使用dmidecode来找出系统支持的最大内存,这样你就无需打开机箱或者参照BIOS和产品目录了。

什么是 dmidecode?

就像你可能知道的一样, dmidecode是一个将计算机DMI(又名SMBIOS)表的内容转换为可读格式的工具。这个表包含了系统硬件组件的介绍以及其他一些如序列号和IOS版本等有用的信息。使用dmidecode你能够获取此项信息,而无需去探测真实的硬件。

找出你的系统所支持的最大内存

请确定你已经在系统中安装了dmidecode,我觉得你的操作系统应该已经自动安装过了,不过并不非常确定。

在基于Deb的系统中安装

sudo apt-get install dmidecode

在基于RPM的系统中安装

sudo yum install dmidecode

在SUSE/openSUSE中安装

sudo zypper in dmidecode

好了,我们已经安装了dmidecode,接下来让我们找出支持的最大内存。输入以下命令:

sudo dmidecode -t 16

输出样本

# dmidecode 2.12  SMBIOS 2.6 present.    Handle 0x0014, DMI type 16, 15 bytes  Physical Memory Array  Location: System Board Or Motherboard  Use: System Memory  Error Correction Type: None  Maximum Capacity: 16 GB  Error Information Handle: Not Provided  Number Of Devices: 2

就像你看到的,我的系统支持最大内存到16G,并且有两个内存插槽,简单吧?

接下来,让我们找出现在已经安装的内存的详细信息。

sudo dmidecode -t 17

输出样本

# dmidecode 2.12  SMBIOS 2.6 present.    Handle 0x0017, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device  Array Handle: 0x0014  Error Information Handle: 0x0000  Total Width: Unknown  Data Width: Unknown  Size: No Module Installed  Form Factor: DIMM  Set: None  Locator: DIMM_B  Bank Locator: BANK 2  Type: Unknown  Type Detail: None  Speed: Unknown  Manufacturer: Not Specified  Serial Number: Not Specified  Asset Tag: Not Specified  Part Number: Not Specified  Rank: Unknown    Handle 0x0015, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device  Array Handle: 0x0014  Error Information Handle: 0x0000  Total Width: 64 bits  Data Width: 64 bits  Size: 4096 MB  Form Factor: SODIMM  Set: None  Locator: DIMM_A  Bank Locator: BANK 0  Type: DDR3  Type Detail: Synchronous  Speed: 1067 MHz  Manufacturer: 014F  Serial Number: 00092AF2  Asset Tag: 54114000  Part Number: JM1066KSN-4G  Rank: Unknown

就像上边输出的一样,我在插槽1里边安装了一个内存条。内存大小为4G,类型为DDR3,速度为1067 MHz

同样的,我们可以通过下边命令得到完整的内存信息。

sudo dmidecode -t memory  sudo dmidecode -t memory | less  sudo dmidecode -t memory | more

输出样本

# dmidecode 2.12  SMBIOS 2.6 present.  Handle 0x0014, DMI type 16, 15 bytes  Physical Memory Array      Location: System Board Or Motherboard      Use: System Memory      Error Correction Type: None      Maximum Capacity: 16 GB      Error Information Handle: Not Provided      Number Of Devices: 2  Handle 0x0017, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device      Array Handle: 0x0014      Error Information Handle: 0x0000      Total Width: Unknown      Data Width: Unknown      Size: No Module Installed      Form Factor: DIMM      Set: None      Locator: DIMM_B      Bank Locator: BANK 2      Type: Unknown      Type Detail: None      Speed: Unknown      Manufacturer: Not Specified      Serial Number: Not Specified      Asset Tag: Not Specified      Part Number: Not Specified      Rank: Unknown  Handle 0x0015, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device      Array Handle: 0x0014      Error Information Handle: 0x0000      Total Width: 64 bits      Data Width: 64 bits      Size: 4096 MB      Form Factor: SODIMM      Set: None      Locator: DIMM_A      Bank Locator: BANK 0      Type: DDR3      Type Detail: Synchronous      Speed: 1067 MHz      Manufacturer: 014F      Serial Number: 00092AF2      Asset Tag: 54114000           Part Number: JM1066KSN-4G            Rank: Unknown

如果你好奇想要知道整个系统的详细信息,例如主板、内存、BIOS等,那么可以输入以下命令来获取。

sudo dmidecode

输出样本

# dmidecode 2.12  SMBIOS 2.6 present.  48 structures occupying 2173 bytes.  Table at 0x000EB840.  Handle 0xDA00, DMI type 218, 251 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DA FB 00 DA B2 00 0D 5F 0F 37 40 7D 00 00 00 00          00 7E 00 01 00 00 00 DC 01 00 80 02 00 DD 01 00          80 03 00 75 01 01 80 01 00 76 01 02 80 01 00 2D          01 03 80 01 00 2E 01 03 80 00 00 81 01 07 80 00          00 82 01 07 80 01 00 83 01 08 80 00 00 84 01 08          80 01 00 85 01 06 80 00 00 86 01 06 80 01 00 58          02 05 80 00 00 57 02 05 80 01 00 9C 00 02 00 01          00 9B 00 02 00 00 00 8A 01 03 00 01 00 89 01 03          00 00 00 7F 01 04 00 00 00 80 01 04 00 01 00 53          01 05 00 00 00 52 01 05 00 01 00 7B 01 06 00 00          00 7C 01 06 00 01 00 94 01 07 00 00 00 93 01 07          00 01 00 7D 00 08 00 00 00 2D 00 09 00 01 00 2E          00 09 00 00 00 6E 00 0A 00 00 00 95 00 0B 00 01          00 96 00 0B 00 00 00 2F 02 0C 00 01 00 30 02 0C          00 00 00 50 02 0D 00 00 00 51 02 0D 00 01 00 52          02 0D 00 02 00 FF FF 00 00 00 00  Handle 0xDA01, DMI type 218, 59 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DA 3B 01 DA B2 00 0D 5F 0F 37 40 53 02 0D 00 03          00 54 02 0D 00 04 00 56 02 0D 00 05 00 4B 01 0E          00 01 00 4A 01 0E 00 00 00 EA 00 0F 00 01 00 EB          00 0F 00 00 00 FF FF 00 00 00 00  Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 42 bytes  Processor Information      Socket Designation: CPU 1      Type: Central Processor      Family: Core i3      Manufacturer: Intel                  ID: A7 06 03 01 FF FB AB BE      Signature: Type 0, Family 6, Model 42, Stepping 7      Flags:          FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)          VME (Virtual mode extension)          DE (Debugging extension)          PSE (Page size extension)          TSC (Time stamp counter)          MSR (Model specific registers)          PAE (Physical address extension)          MCE (Machine check exception)          CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)          APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)          SEP (Fast system call)          MTRR (Memory type range registers)          PGE (Page global enable)          MCA (Machine check architecture)          CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)          PAT (Page attribute table)          PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)          CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)          DS (Debug store)          ACPI (ACPI supported)          MMX (MMX technology supported)          FXSR (FXSAVE and FXSTOR instructions supported)          SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)          SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)          SS (Self-snoop)          HTT (Multi-threading)          TM (Thermal monitor supported)          PBE (Pending break enabled)      Version: Intel(R) Core(TM) i3-2350M CPU @ 2.30GHz             Voltage: 1.1 V      External Clock: 100 MHz      Max Speed: 2300 MHz      Current Speed: 2300 MHz      Status: Populated, Enabled      Upgrade: Other      L1 Cache Handle: 0x0005      L2 Cache Handle: 0x0006      L3 Cache Handle: 0x0007      Serial Number: To Be Filled By O.E.M.      Asset Tag: To Be Filled By O.E.M.      Part Number: To Be Filled By O.E.M.      Core Count: 2      Core Enabled: 1      Thread Count: 2      Characteristics:          64-bit capable  Handle 0x0005, DMI type 7, 19 bytes  Cache Information      Socket Designation: L1-Cache      Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1      Operational Mode: Write Back      Location: Internal      Installed Size: 64 kB      Maximum Size: 64 kB      Supported SRAM Types:          Other      Installed SRAM Type: Other      Speed: Unknown      Error Correction Type: None      System Type: Unified      Associativity: 8-way Set-associative  Handle 0x0006, DMI type 7, 19 bytes  Cache Information      Socket Designation: L2-Cache      Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2      Operational Mode: Varies With Memory Address      Location: Internal      Installed Size: 512 kB      Maximum Size: 512 kB      Supported SRAM Types:          Other      Installed SRAM Type: Other      Speed: Unknown      Error Correction Type: None      System Type: Unified      Associativity: 8-way Set-associative  Handle 0x0007, DMI type 7, 19 bytes  Cache Information      Socket Designation: L3-Cache      Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 3      Operational Mode: Varies With Memory Address      Location: Internal      Installed Size: 3072 kB      Maximum Size: 3072 kB      Supported SRAM Types:          Other      Installed SRAM Type: Other      Speed: Unknown      Error Correction Type: None      System Type: Unified      Associativity: Other  Handle 0x0008, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J1A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: PS2Mouse      External Connector Type: PS/2      Port Type: Mouse Port  Handle 0x0009, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J1A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: Keyboard      External Connector Type: PS/2      Port Type: Keyboard Port  Handle 0x000A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J2A2B      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: Video      External Connector Type: DB-15 female      Port Type: Video Port  Handle 0x000B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J3A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: USB1      External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)      Port Type: USB  Handle 0x000C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J3A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: USB2      External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)      Port Type: USB  Handle 0x000D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J3A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: USB3      External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)      Port Type: USB  Handle 0x000E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes  Port Connector Information      Internal Reference Designator: J5A1      Internal Connector Type: None      External Reference Designator: LAN      External Connector Type: RJ-45      Port Type: Network Port  Handle 0x000F, DMI type 9, 17 bytes  System Slot Information      Designation: J6B2      Type: x16 PCI Express      Current Usage: In Use      Length: Long      ID: 0      Characteristics:          3.3 V is provided          Opening is shared          PME signal is supported      Bus Address: 0000:00:01.0  Handle 0x0010, DMI type 9, 17 bytes  System Slot Information      Designation: J6B1      Type: x1 PCI Express      Current Usage: In Use      Length: Short      ID: 1      Characteristics:          3.3 V is provided          Opening is shared          PME signal is supported      Bus Address: 0000:00:1c.3  Handle 0x0012, DMI type 11, 5 bytes  OEM Strings      String 1: Dell System      String 2: 5[0003]      String 3: 13[P18F]  Handle 0x0013, DMI type 12, 5 bytes  System Configuration Options      Option 1: To Be Filled By O.E.M.  Handle 0x001C, DMI type 21, 7 bytes  Built-in Pointing Device      Type: Touch Pad      Interface: Bus Mouse      Buttons: 2  Handle 0x001D, DMI type 22, 26 bytes  Portable Battery      Location: Sys. Battery Bay      Manufacturer: Sanyo                    Serial Number: 5390           Name: DELL 4YRJH22      Chemistry: Lithium Ion      Design Capacity: 45000 mWh      Design Voltage: 10800 mV      SBDS Version: 1.0                      Maximum Error: 2%      SBDS Manufacture Date: 2012-02-28      OEM-specific Information: 0x00000001  Handle 0x001E, DMI type 32, 20 bytes  System Boot Information      Status: No errors detected  Handle 0x0020, DMI type 27, 12 bytes  Cooling Device      Type: Fan      Status: OK      OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000  Handle 0x0021, DMI type 28, 20 bytes  Temperature Probe      Description: CPU Internal Temperature      Location: Processor      Status: OK      Maximum Value: 127.0 deg C      Minimum Value: 0.0 deg C      Resolution: 1.000 deg C      Tolerance: 0.5 deg C      Accuracy: Unknown      OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000  Handle 0xB000, DMI type 176, 5 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          B0 05 00 B0 00  Handle 0xB100, DMI type 177, 12 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          B1 0C 00 B1 1A 0E 00 00 00 00 00 00  Handle 0x0025, DMI type 209, 12 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D1 0C 25 00 00 00 00 03 05 01 00 03  Handle 0x0026, DMI type 210, 12 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D2 0C 26 00 00 00 00 03 05 20 01 03  Handle 0x0027, DMI type 211, 13 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D3 0D 27 00 01 00 00 00 00 02 03 04 04      Strings:          Front                 Handle 0x0028, DMI type 212, 57 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D4 39 28 00 70 00 71 00 01 49 50 48 9C 00 49 FC          01 9B 00 49 FC 00 7F 01 4A FB 04 80 01 4A FB 00          53 01 4A F7 08 52 01 4A F7 08 7B 01 4A EF 10 7C          01 4A EF 10 FF FF 00 00 00  Handle 0x002A, DMI type 217, 8 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D9 08 2A 00 01 02 00 00      Strings:                                         Handle 0x002B, DMI type 219, 11 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DB 0B 2B 00 00 01 02 03 00 04 05      Strings:                                                                                                      Handle 0x002C, DMI type 220, 22 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DC 16 2C 00 01 F0 00 00 02 F0 00 00 00 00 03 F0          04 F0 00 00 00 00  Handle 0x002D, DMI type 221, 19 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DD 13 2D 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 00 00 00 00 00 00          00 00 00  Handle 0x002E, DMI type 222, 16 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          DE 10 2E 00 01 08 FF FF 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  Handle 0x0014, DMI type 16, 15 bytes  Physical Memory Array      Location: System Board Or Motherboard      Use: System Memory      Error Correction Type: None      Maximum Capacity: 16 GB      Error Information Handle: Not Provided      Number Of Devices: 2  Handle 0x0016, DMI type 20, 19 bytes  Memory Device Mapped Address      Starting Address: 0x00000000000      Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF      Range Size: 4 GB      Physical Device Handle: 0x0015      Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0018      Partition Row Position: 1      Interleave Position: 1      Interleaved Data Depth: 1  Handle 0x0017, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device      Array Handle: 0x0014      Error Information Handle: 0x0000      Total Width: Unknown      Data Width: Unknown      Size: No Module Installed      Form Factor: DIMM      Set: None      Locator: DIMM_B      Bank Locator: BANK 2      Type: Unknown      Type Detail: None      Speed: Unknown      Manufacturer: Not Specified      Serial Number: Not Specified      Asset Tag: Not Specified      Part Number: Not Specified      Rank: Unknown  Handle 0x0018, DMI type 19, 15 bytes  Memory Array Mapped Address      Starting Address: 0x00000000000      Ending Address: 0x000FFFFFFFF      Range Size: 4 GB      Physical Array Handle: 0x0014      Partition Width: 2  Handle 0x002F, DMI type 13, 22 bytes  BIOS Language Information      Language Description Format: Abbreviated      Installable Languages: 1          eng          Currently Installed Language: eng  Handle 0x0030, DMI type 131, 64 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          83 40 30 00 31 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00          F8 00 4B 1C FF FF FF FF 01 00 00 00 00 00 07 00          AD 04 04 00 00 00 00 00 C8 00 FF FF 00 00 00 00          00 00 00 00 32 00 00 00 76 50 72 6F 00 00 00 00  Handle 0x0029, DMI type 216, 9 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D8 09 29 00 01 02 01 00 00      Strings:          INTEL          0000  Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes  BIOS Information      Vendor: Dell Inc.      Version: A05      Release Date: 08/03/2012      Address: 0xF0000      Runtime Size: 64 kB      ROM Size: 2048 kB      Characteristics:          MCA is supported          PCI is supported          BIOS is upgradeable          BIOS shadowing is allowed          ESCD support is available          Boot from CD is supported          Selectable boot is supported          BIOS ROM is socketed          EDD is supported          5.25"/1.2 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)          3.5"/720 kB floppy services are supported (int 13h)          3.5"/2.88 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)          Print screen service is supported (int 5h)          8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)          Serial services are supported (int 14h)          Printer services are supported (int 17h)          CGA/mono video services are supported (int 10h)          ACPI is supported          USB legacy is supported          ATAPI Zip drive boot is supported          BIOS boot specification is supported          Targeted content distribution is supported      BIOS Revision: 0.5      Firmware Revision: 0.5  Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 15 bytes  Base Board Information      Manufacturer: Dell Inc.      Product Name: 01HXXJ      Version: A05      Serial Number: .JSQ7PA1.CN7117623M00J2.      Asset Tag: Not Specified      Features:          Board is a hosting board          Board is replaceable      Location In Chassis: To Be Filled By O.E.M.      Chassis Handle: 0x0003      Type: Motherboard      Contained Object Handles: 0  Handle 0x0003, DMI type 3, 21 bytes  Chassis Information      Manufacturer: Dell Inc.      Type: Portable      Lock: Not Present      Version: Not Specified      Serial Number: JSR1      Asset Tag: Not Specified      Boot-up State: Safe      Power Supply State: Safe      Thermal State: Safe      Security Status: None      OEM Information: 0x00000000      Height: Unspecified      Number Of Power Cords: 1      Contained Elements: 0  Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes  System Information      Manufacturer: Dell Inc.      Product Name: Inspiron N5050      Version: Not Specified      Serial Number: JSR1      UUID: 4C4C4544-0053-5110-8029-CAC05241      Wake-up Type: Power Switch      SKU Number: To be filled by O.E.M.      Family:                         Handle 0x0024, DMI type 208, 12 bytes  OEM-specific Type      Header and Data:          D0 0C 24 00 02 05 FE 00 04 05 01 02      Strings:          20120323          20120323  Handle 0x0011, DMI type 10, 6 bytes  On Board Device Information      Type: Video      Status: Enabled      Description: Mobile Intel SandyBridge HD Graphics  Handle 0x0015, DMI type 17, 28 bytes  Memory Device      Array Handle: 0x0014      Error Information Handle: 0x0000      Total Width: 64 bits      Data Width: 64 bits      Size: 4096 MB      Form Factor: SODIMM      Set: None      Locator: DIMM_A      Bank Locator: BANK 0      Type: DDR3      Type Detail: Synchronous      Speed: 1067 MHz      Manufacturer: 014F      Serial Number: 0009F2      Asset Tag: 54114000           Part Number: JM1066-4G            Rank: Unknown  Handle 0x0031, DMI type 127, 4 bytes  End Of Table

好了,就是这样。

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